Born in Cairo in 1929, Yasser Arafat was named chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization 40 years later. Arafat signed a self-governing pact with Israel in 1991, at the Madrid Conference, and together with Israeli leaders made several attempts at lasting peace soon after, notably through the Oslo Accords (1993) and the Camp David Summit of 2000. Arafat and Israel’s Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres shared the Nobel Peace Prize, but the terms were never implemented. Arafat ceded his PLO chairman post in 2003, and died in Paris in 2004. Read Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat Biography and Profile.